|Image: Adobe Stock|
Once of the potential of , be it for yourself. Considering the systems, though, it .
As with things, computers understood through a breakdown of their evolution and operation. The terminal computers began, their real power still resides. here introduction to the terminal, it works, explore on your own.
Terminal, , Shell
Although "terminal," "command line," and "shell" used interchangeably, it helps distinctions between these terms. The word "terminal" comes from the days of -- the on -- university campuses and facilities had a room-sized , and users interacted with it by accessing keyboard-and-screen terminals scattered and connected to the central hub with long cables.
Today, most true terminals like those. Instead, access emulators -- interfaces on Unix-like systems that mimic the terminal's mechanism. of terminal a "pseudo-terminal."
Also a "terminal window," a pseudo-terminal is application on your graphical desktop session. It opens a window interaction with the shell. example of the Gnome Terminal or KDE Konsole. For of this guide, use "terminal" to refer to terminal emulators.
The "command line" of interface that one utilizes on the terminal, named for write lines of text as commands.
The "shell" program the uses and execute your commands. The common default shell on is Bash, there others, Zsh C shell.
The before diving in is files organized. In Unix-like systems, directories ordered in tree, with filesystem (notated as "/" and from the "/root" directory) .
The root filesystem contains of directories it, have their own directories and files, and so on, eventually extending to file your access. The directories directly filesystem, in directory notation, given right the "/".
For example, the "bin" directory contained right would be as "/bin". All directories at levels down separated with a "/", "bin" directory within the "usr" directory root filesystem would be denoted as "/usr/bin". , a file "bash" (the shell), is in "bin" in "usr" would be listed as "/usr/bin/bash".
So these directories and files and do stuff with them? By commands to navigate.
To figure out , run "pwd" ("print directory") and get path to the directory in.
To see go, run "ls" to list directory contents. itself, it returns the contents of directory, if it a path to a directory, print the contents of the directory at of .
Using "ls" tell you that, though. If you insert "-l" between the command path with on either , get the "long" listing specifying the file owner, size and .
Commands, Options, Arguments
This is time between commands, and arguments. The command, program being run, goes first.
After that alter the of the command by adding , either one dash and one letter ("-a") or dashes and a word ("--all").
The argument -- the the command operates on -- takes of a path. commands arguments basic , some lend with them, or outright them.
The next step is moving between directories, by running "cd" ("change directory"). If you a path as argument, move you directory. If , you to the user's home directory (e.g., for user "pablo", "/home/pablo").
There -- absolute and relative. Absolute , or full , ones that from root. However, path from the directory in, case relative.
Now files, to be do with them. One is them with "cp". To use it, arguments, separated by a space: the file to be , and it .
If the second argument directory, place copy there, if a , place with the given directory before the last slash.
Be aware that if a file already exists at place and with name second argument, overwritten.
You also move files with the "mv" command. "cp", "mv" takes |the initial} file first argument new location second. like "cp", if the second argument file name, rename the file . The overwriting, or "clobbering," rule of "cp" applies to "mv", too.
Off You Go
These , knowing them is for you to explore the system. One key to success in learning computers is that it learning minute detail, rather learning learn.
In that spirit, you with resources for your own -- others, me!
If file accidentally messing it up, run "less" with the file as argument. This opens it with a viewer, prevents you from , to scroll through at your leisure.
If what file is, run "file" (again, with the file argument).
To get of what command , run "apropos" with a keyword receive of relevant programs.
If of what a command , a reference sheet for and arguments a command take, run "man" (for "manual") followed by the command name.
In future installments, I demonstrate the terminal's advanced capabilities, if to supplement this introduction, "The ," a free PDF by William Shotts.
Another resources beginner video series "Linux Terminal -- Started!" by hak5.
This should be enough even of you busy my next installment . Until then, happy terminal testing!